B"H: Acronym; Baruch Hashem.  Thank G-d.
Challah: Egg bread traditionally eaten on Jewish sabbath.
Chatzos: Or chatzot.  Jewish midday-- the halfway point between sunrise and sunset.
Chavruta: study partner for learning Torah.  But-oh-so-much-more.  See this article.
Chesed: Loving-kindness.  Often used to refer to generous, sweet, helpful things that one does for others.
Cholent: Wikipedia does a much better job on "cholent" than I can.  It is basically Shabbos stew.  In the words of Uncle Moishy, "You take the meat and potatoes and all kinds of beans/salt, pepper, ketchup and things in between/and then the secret ingredient!"
Erev Shabbos: The evening/afternoon leading up to Shabbos.
Gefilte Fish: chopped fish loaf thing.  Very mild taste... Yes. It is probably an acquired taste.
Hashem: Literally, "the name".  G-d.
Hashem Yerachem: Hashem, have mercy.
Kedusha: holiness
Kugel: Sweet or savory and always yummy.  Kugel is... kugel.  It is a casseroley, puddingy, kugely thingy.  My personal, all time favorite is potato (think potato pancake taste, but thick and baked).  Close second is broccoli (quiche-y... I put fried onions on top of mine... green bean casserole style).  Mainstay of most shabbos meals.
L'cvod Shabbos Kodesh: For the honor of the holy Shabbos.  When you do something "l'cvod shabbos", you are doing it in honor of Shabbos.  For example, I am mopping my floor, "l'cvod shabbos".
Matza: Unleavened bread traditionally eaten during Passover.  It is flat and resembles a cracker.
Mazel tov: Congratulations.  There is a lot more that can be said about that phrase, but for our purposes, congratulations will work.
Mitzvah: Commandment or torah obligation. Also can be used as "good deed"-- as in, HELP ME WITH MY CHALLAH MITZVAH!
Min Hashamyim: From Heaven. 
Mitzvah/mitzvos: The way I will be using it-- Torah commandment (you are probably familiar with the top 10 list... there are 603 others).
Motzei Shabbos: Saturday night.
Parasha: Weekly Torah portion.
Parve: The laws of kashrus (keeping kosher) make a distinction between milk and meat (namely, we don't eat them together).  Food that is neither milk nor meat is considered "parve"-- neutral, if you will.  You could eat it with anything.
Pesach: Passover.  On Pesach, we don't eat any leavened food and make special efforts to ensure that no leavened products are in our possession.  By "make special efforts", I mean "become borderline ocd about crumbs of cheerios dust that could possible be lingering in the crevices of the couch."
Rebbitzen: Rabbi's wife.  Typically, a very holy, special woman sought out for advice.
Shabbos/Shabbat: Jewish sabbath, celebrated every week from sundown on Friday until sundown on Saturday.
Shmooze: chat.  But so much more colorful!
Shul: Synagogue. 
Tehillim: Psalms.
Yetzer Hara: Evil inclination.  The yetzer hara is that little devil that pops up on your shoulder and whispers in your ear.